Static hemodynamic monitoring variables  The utility of each variable as a single absolute value is questionable. Some individual hemodynamic values are useful primarily as threshold monitors. For example, because a primary determinate of organ perfusion is perfusion pressure, systemic hypotension to below a certain threshold is clinically relevant. Furthermore, elevation in central venous pressure … Read moreHemodynamics


Tachycardia  Tachycardia is defined as a heart rate above 100 beats per minute, but symptomatic tachycardia generally involves rates over 150 beats per minute, unless underlying ventricular dysfunction exists. Management of tachyarrhythmias is determined by the presence of clinical symptoms and signs caused by the rapid heart rate.    The fundamental approach is as follows: … Read moreTachyarrythmias

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac Arrest Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death refer to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity with hemodynamic collapse, typically due to sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation.    Etiology: Coronary artery disease – 70% of sudden cardiac arrests are due to CAD. Other structural heart disease:  Heart failure and cardiomyopathy Left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertension or other causes. … Read moreCardiac Arrest


ARDS ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) syndromes are forms of type I or acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This form of lung dysfunction arises from diseases causing the collapse and/or filling of alveoli, with the result that a substantial fraction of mixed venous blood traverses nonventilated airspaces, effecting a right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt. In addition to … Read moreARDS

Acute Kidney Injury

Acute Renal Failure Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome characterized by rapid decline GFR with retention of nitrogenous waste products and perturbation of extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte and acid–base homeostasis. It is defined as a measurable increase in serum creatinine concentration, usually a relative increase of 50% or absolute increase by 0.5–1.0 mg/dL.   RIFLE CRITERIA: 1. … Read moreAcute Kidney Injury


 BACTERIA: Gram positive cocci includes staphlylococcus, streptococcus , enterococcus and micrococcus. Gram positive bacilli includes campylobacter, clostridium, corynebacterium, actinomyces, bacillus, listeria, lactobacillus and diptheroids Gram negative cocci includes nisseria and moraxella.  Gram negative anaerobic bacilli includes bacteroids, prevotella and fusobacterium.  Gram negative aerobic bacilli includes E.coli , pseudomonas, proteus, acinetobacter, enterobacter, morganella , klebsiella, hemophillus, legionella, campylobacter … Read moreAntibiotics


Anemia   Definition  Definition of anemia, according to World Health Organization criteria  Adult men : Blood hemoglobin concentration < 13 g/dL or Hematocrit < 39%  Adult women : Blood hemoglobin concentration < 12 g/dL or Hematocrit < 37%  Mechanism  Marrow production defects: Hypoproliferation  Reflects absolute or relative marrow failure in which the erythroid marrow has not proliferated appropriately for the degree of anemia  Can … Read moreAnemia

Acute Liver failure

Acute Liver Failure: Acute liver failure is characterized by acute liver injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and an elevated PT/INR. It has also been referred to as fulminant hepatic failure, acute hepatic necrosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, and fulminant hepatitis.   Acute liver failure refers to the development of severe acute liver injury with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic … Read moreAcute Liver failure