Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis   Acid-base balance is maintained by pulmonary and renal excretion of carbon dioxide and nonvolatile acid, respectively.   Renal excretion of acid involves the combination of hydrogen ions with urinary titratable acids, particularly phosphate (HPO42- + H+   —>   H2PO4-), or with ammonia to form ammonium (NH3 + H+   —>   … Read more

Acute Kidney Injury

Acute Renal Failure Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome characterized by rapid decline GFR with retention of nitrogenous waste products and perturbation of extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte and acid–base homeostasis. It is defined as a measurable increase in serum creatinine concentration, usually a relative increase of 50% or absolute increase by 0.5–1.0 mg/dL.   RIFLE CRITERIA: 1. … Read more