Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary Embolism Acute PE can be classified as massive or submassive: Massive PE causes hypotension, defined as a systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or a drop in systolic blood pressure of ≥40 mmHg from baseline for a period >15 minutes. It should be suspected anytime there is hypotension accompanied by an elevated central venous pressure … Read more

COPD Exacerbation

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease  A disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.  It is characterized by airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases.  Emphysema: anatomically defined as abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the … Read more


Asthma  A chronic inflammatory disease of airways, characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli  Bronchospasm is a secondary phenomenon caused by the underlying inflammatory process.  Manifested physiologically by widespread narrowing of the air passages, and clinically by paroxysms of dyspnea, cough, chest tightness and wheezing    Etiology  Airway hyperresponsiveness to both specific … Read more


ARDS ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) syndromes are forms of type I or acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This form of lung dysfunction arises from diseases causing the collapse and/or filling of alveoli, with the result that a substantial fraction of mixed venous blood traverses nonventilated airspaces, effecting a right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt. In addition to … Read more

Pulmonary Hypertension

PULMONARY HYPERTENSION  Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined simply as a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mmHg or greater. The normal mean pulmonary arterial pressure is 14+-3, with upper limit being 20. Normal pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is around 10 and diastolic pressure around 5 mmHg.    Although pulmonary hypertension is primarly due to elevation of pressure … Read more

Lung Ultrasound

Lung Ultrasound:  High frequencies are useful to look at the periphery of the lung with a high resolution as in looking for 'lung sliding' and other signs of pneumothorax, as well as studying lung comets. Lower frequencies help with the imaging of deep lung tissues as in looking at consolidation and pleural effusion. Hence a … Read more