COPD Exacerbation

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease  A disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.  It is characterized by airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases.  Emphysema: anatomically defined as abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the … Read moreCOPD Exacerbation


Asthma  A chronic inflammatory disease of airways, characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli  Bronchospasm is a secondary phenomenon caused by the underlying inflammatory process.  Manifested physiologically by widespread narrowing of the air passages, and clinically by paroxysms of dyspnea, cough, chest tightness and wheezing    Etiology  Airway hyperresponsiveness to both specific … Read moreAsthma


ARDS ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) syndromes are forms of type I or acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This form of lung dysfunction arises from diseases causing the collapse and/or filling of alveoli, with the result that a substantial fraction of mixed venous blood traverses nonventilated airspaces, effecting a right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt. In addition to … Read moreARDS

Pulmonary Hypertension

PULMONARY HYPERTENSION  Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined simply as a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mmHg or greater. The normal mean pulmonary arterial pressure is 14+-3, with upper limit being 20. Normal pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is around 10 and diastolic pressure around 5 mmHg.    Although pulmonary hypertension is primarly due to elevation of pressure … Read morePulmonary Hypertension