INFLUENZA    Although most persons who become infected with influenza viruses will recover without sequelae, influenza can cause serious illness and death, particularly among persons aged ≥65 years and <2 years and those with medical conditions that confer high risk for complications from influenza.     Vaccination:  Routine annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 … Read moreInfluenza

Sepsis and Septic shock

Surviving Sepsis Guidelines:  In their own words of wisdon – " The recommendations in this document are intended to provide guidance for the clinician caring for adult patients with sepsis or septic shock. Recommendations from these guidelines cannot replace the clinician’s decision-making capability when presented with a patient’s unique set of clinical variables. These guidelines are intended to be best … Read moreSepsis and Septic shock


PNEUMONIA    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the lung parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community.  Hospital-acquired (or Nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP) is pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission and did not appear to be present at the time of admission.  Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is … Read morePneumonia


 BACTERIA: Gram positive cocci includes staphlylococcus, streptococcus , enterococcus and micrococcus. Gram positive bacilli includes campylobacter, clostridium, corynebacterium, actinomyces, bacillus, listeria, lactobacillus and diptheroids Gram negative cocci includes nisseria and moraxella.  Gram negative anaerobic bacilli includes bacteroids, prevotella and fusobacterium.  Gram negative aerobic bacilli includes E.coli , pseudomonas, proteus, acinetobacter, enterobacter, morganella , klebsiella, hemophillus, legionella, campylobacter … Read moreAntibiotics

Neutropenic Fever

Neutropenia is usually defined as an ANC <1500 cells/microL, and severe neutropenia as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <500 cells/microL. Fever in neutropenic patients is defined as a single oral temperature of >38.3°C (101°F) or a temperature of >38°C (100.4°F) sustained for >1 hour.      The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is equal to the product of the white blood cell … Read moreNeutropenic Fever

C Diff Colitis

Clostridium Difficile    Clostridium difficile is the causative organism of antibiotic-associated colitis. The organism is capable of elaborating exotoxins that bind to receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, leading to inflammation and diarrhea.     C difficile is highly transmissible via fomites and can be cultured readily from nearly any surface, including items in patient rooms as well … Read moreC Diff Colitis